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Text originally published in 1962 under the same tiêu đề .© Golden Springs Publishing năm ngoái, all rights reserved. No part dob calculator
this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted by any means, electrical, mechanical or otherwise without the written permission of the copyright holder .Publisher’s chú ýAlthough in most cases we have retained the Author’s original spelling và grammar bự authentically reproduce the work of the tác giả & the original intent of such material, some additional notes & clarifications have been added for the modern reader’s benefit .We have also made every effort lớn include all map & illustrations of the original edition the limitations of formatting bởi not allow of including larger map, we will upload as many of these map as possible .
CIVIL WAR IRONCLADS: THE DAWN OF NAVAL ARMOR
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS 4
INTRODUCTION: ORIGINS OF THE IRONCLAD 8
PART I—IRONCLADS IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY 12
THE STEVENS BATTERY 12
THE MONITORS 15
THE MONITOR 16
THE PASSAIC CLASS: PASSAIC, MONTAUK, CATSKILL, PATAPSCO, LEHIGH, SANGAMON, WEEHAWKEN, COMANCHE, NANTUCKET, NAHANT 23
THE CANONICUS CLASS: CANONICUS, CATAWBA, MAHOPAC, MANYUNK, MANHATTAN, ONEOTA, SAUGUS, TIPPECANOE, AND TECUMSEH 31
THE DICTATOR CLASS: DICTATOR AND PURITAN 32
THE ONONDAGA 35
THE MIANTONOMOH CLASS: MIANTONOMOH, MONADNOCK, TONAWANDA AND AGAMENTICUS 37
THE ROANOKE 38
THE CASCO CLASS 40
THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER IRONCLADS 45
THE CAIRO CLASS: CAIRO, CARONDELET, CINCINNATI, LOUISVILLE, MOUND CITY, PITTSBURG AND ST. LOUIS 45
THE BENTON AND THE ESSEX 47
THE CHOCTAW AND THE LAFAYETTE 49
THE CHILLICOTHE, THE INDIANOLA, THE TUSCUMBIA 52
THE EASTPORT 52
THE TINCLADS 52
THE OSAGE AND THE NEOSHO 53
THE WINNEBAGO CLASS: MILWAUKEE, WINNEBAGO, KICKAPOO AND CHICKASAW 53
THE OZARK 56
CONVENTIONAL IRONCLADS 60
THE NEW IRONSIDES 60
THE KEOKUK 61
THE GALENA 62
THE DUNDERBERG 62
PART II—IRONCLADS IN THE CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY 64
THE JAMES RIVER 69
THE VIRGINIA 70
THE RICHMOND, VIRGINIA II AND FREDERICKSBURG 73
NORTH CAROLINA 75
THE NORTH CAROLINA AND THE RALEIGH 75
THE ALBEMARLE 77
CHARLESTON AND SAVANNAH 82
THE PALMETTO STATE AND THE CHICORA 82
THE DAVID CLASS 83
THE ATLANTA 86
THE GEORGIA AND THE SAVANNAH 88
THE TENNESSEE 91
THE NASHVILLE, HUNTSVILLE AND TUSCALOOSA 95
NEW ORLEANS AND THE YAZOO RIVER 96
THE MANASSAS 96
THE LOUISIANA 98
THE MISSISSIPPI 100
THE ARKANSAS AND THE TENNESSEE 101
CONFEDERATE IRONCLADS BUILT IN EUROPE 104
APPENDIX I—ORDNANCE 108
THE DAHLGREN GUNS 108
THE PARROTT RIFLES 108
THE BROOKE RIFLES 108
APPENDIX II 109
1—Letter of Rear-Admiral DuPont on the qualities of the Monitor vessels for blockading duty off Charleston. 109
2—Rear-Admiral Goldsborough’s opinion of ironclads. 110
3—Rear-Admiral Dahlgren’s opinion of the Monitors. 119
4—Rear-Admiral Porters views upon ironclads. 129
5—Commodore John Rodgers’s opinion of ironclads. 134
REQUEST FROM THE PUBLISHER 138
To my father ,và béo my sons, Alan và Andrew .
The author wishes béo thank the following persons for their assistance in the preparation of this book : Mrs. Lynford Hewitt, Miss Marlyn Radford, Mr. H. N. Lang, Mr. Stanley Grivensky, Miss Emily Marlin, Mr. Walter Andrews, và Mr. Martin Stevens .
The battle between the USS Monitor & the CSS Virginia ( nee Merrimack ), at Hampton Roads was neither the beginning nor the over of the story of the ironclad warships in the Civil War. Both the Union & the Confederate navies not only had other ironclad ships in commission at the giây phút of the battle, they already had used them in combat. The months following saw the appearance of squadrons of monitors & casemate ironclads of the general thiết kế of the Virginia. It is with the sequels béo the Battle of Hampton Roads that this book is primarily concerned .
INTRODUCTION: ORIGINS OF THE IRONCLAD
Although more than a century has elapsed since its beginnings, the conditions which gave rise béo the ironclad warship were the same which later were bự bring about the development of the dreadnought, the aircraft carrier, và the nuclear submarine : the responses of a burgeoning industrial công nghệ mập the demands of particular strategic requirements .The ironclads, in fact, were among the very first products of the modern age of công nghệ, along with the railroad và the telegraph, và they were unquestionably the first of the melancholy procession of modern tools of war. As such, they were a whole era ahead of any weapons in use ashore, save the revolver. The armies of the Civil War really differed relatively little from the armies of Marlborough, or even Cromwell, but even the crudest of the navies ’ armored vessels would have seemed familiar phệ a seaman of today .The first contribution lớn the development of armored warships was most certainly the marine steam engine, which had been in use since about 1815 &, by the beginning of the Civil War, had reached a relatively high state of development, although it was used at that phút giây only as a primary means of propulsion for riverboats & tugs. While essential béo the creation of ironclads, the steam engine in no way dictated or forced their adoption ; nor, for that matter, did the second necessary factor : the availability of large amounts of relatively cheap wrought iron ( brought about by the rise of the railroads ) .The decisive factor in their birth was the development of the heavy naval gun, và especially of the heavy shell gun .The War of 1812 had demonstrated, bự the United States Navy at least, that a few heavy, long-range guns were more effective than many smaller lighter guns. While the great frigates such as the Constitution generally carried more guns than their opponents, it was remarked that it was usually their heavy chase guns which were decisive. Similar experiences during the same period led French & British naval architects béo the same conclusions, & in the 1820 ’ s và ‘ 30 ’ s the trend in warship kiến thiết began lớn turn toward smaller, faster vessels mounting only a few heavy powerful guns .The pivot gun, which could be rotated phệ fire in any direction, began mập come into general use. This arrangement, which had been used for several centuries on Mediterranean galleys, as well as on minor combatant ships in the Swedish Navy in the 18 th century và in both the British & the American navies at the beginning of the 19 th, was generally adopted for the armament of the mới nhất steam-powered sloops & frigates .The interest in more effective naval guns led simultaneously béo the development of the large calibre rifle và the shell gun. Like the pivot gun, the principle of both was fairly well known. Explosive shells had been used in mortars for many years, và the muzzle-loading rifle, as students of the American Revolution well know, was already in use as a small calibre weapon. Improved methods of producing và forming wrought iron now made large calibre rifles feasible .The shell gun, for which the French General Paixhans must be credited, spelled doom for the wooden ship. Hitherto, the sides of even the heaviest ships had lớn contend only with solid shot, which simply attempted Khủng punch a hole through the wood. Now the physical properties of wood are such that it is well suited mập withstand this kind of shock, coming as it does across the grain, và since wood is naturally buoyant it is always possible, in theory at least, bự make the sides thick enough lớn absorb the impact of virtually any kích thước solid shot. The effect of an explosive shell, however, is something else again. The shell strikes the wooden wall, burrows part way into the wood, và then, almost entirely confined, explodes under almost ideal conditions. And, since its force is exerted in all directions, it splinters the wood ( và most likely sets it afire ). The difference can be compared béo that between chopping a log & splitting it .
An early application of the pivot gun—an American gunboat of 1804.
Once these shell guns became operational, it did not take much imagination béo see that iron armor was now a necessity. This was well proved in the Battle of Sinope in 1853, in which the Russian fleet, using Paixhans ’ shell guns, virtually annihilated the Turkish fleet. After experimenting with iron-plated floating batteries in the Crimean War, both the British & French began phệ build ironclads, beginning with the French Gloire in 1859 & the British Warrior in 1860. Both of these ships, và the others of their respective classes which soon followed them, were, nevertheless, conventional propeller driven steam frigates. Only their sides were armored, their armament và sailing rig remaining quite conventional .The Americans ’ response ( & we must here include John Ericsson, the Swedish-born inventor of the Monitor ) was at once a complete break with a 500 – year tradition in warship construction, & at the same giây phút very much in keeping with their own tradition, & particularly their own naval tradition. Since this tradition is very much alive today, & is quite possibly the chief reason for the continued existence of the United States, it is worthwhile at this point béo examine it .
Beginning with the construction of the magnificent frigates of the Constitution class in 1795, & continuing with the ill-conceived gunboat program of 1803, the Americans always have tended lớn consider their warships as tools of strategy và national policy & nothing more. The frigates were a success ; the gunboats were a failure. Both were discarded without hesitation when their strategic usefulness was, rightly or wrongly, considered bự be at an over. This tendency has continued & has become a tradition, often bự the chagrin of buffs who, in every age, have bemoaned the passing of the reigning queens .Thus, we find that, once the quarrel with the British was ended, the Americans let their sinewy force of frigates gradually molder away ( although during this giây phút they built the Mississippi, a fine paddle-wheel steamer with 10 pivot guns, và shell guns at that, as well as the first steam-driven ship of war in the world, the USS Demologos ) .We shall see how, in both the North & the South, the response — mập the strategic imperatives of the Civil War was also very much in this tradition. Immediately following the war, when the question of the Alabama Claims once more presented the prospect of war with England, the response was again very much phệ the point : a class of wooden cruisers, which were lightly armed & very fast commerce raiders. This threat passed swiftly, và then the cruisers rotted along with the monitors .
The Spanish-American War ( which conceivably could have been a German-American or even a Japanese-American War ) found the U.S. Navy equipped with an at least adequate force of seagoing battleships và cruisers, which in turn gave way mập the largest & finest destroyer force in the world ( và the convoy system và the North Sea mining operation ) by the over of the First World War. The Second World War required aircraft carriers và landing craft, và in the same tradition they were built & used. Of the nuclear submarines & how they came béo be built & on station exactly when they were needed, little need be said .While the tradition does go back mập the giây phút of Nelson, Villeneuve, & Preble, nevertheless its first really great flowering was during the Civil War. Prior béo that giây phút, shipbuilding và ship thiết kế in a basically agricultural community were rather narrow và specialized fields, và the country as a whole was involved neither in building the Navy nor in manning it. The Civil War, however, drew upon the energies of the entire community ( as has every war since ). Some of the most fascinating stories of the conflict involve the efforts, successful or otherwise, simply mập build these awesome monsters, sometimes in places where the most sophisticated industrial plant consisted of a blacksmith shop và a steam-powered sawmill .Indeed, it is difficult phệ escape the conclusion that, although the naval operations were quite possibly the decisive factor in the Civil War, the ironclads as a whole were not — at least not in a narrow tactical sense. The real infighting was done largely by jimcrack shallow-draft gunboats, lightly armored if armored at all ; & the blockade và commerce raiding of the North & the South, respectively, was done by conventional wooden steamships. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the ironclads were developed và built in both parts of the country, were weapons ( for their thời gian ) as exotic as intercontinental rockets, và, for better or worse, the century of destruction began with them .
PART I—IRONCLADS IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY
THE STEVENS BATTERY
At the outbreak of the war in 1861, there was not a single ironclad of any mô tả tìm kiếm in the United States Navy. There was, Khủng be sure, the fantastic Stevens Battery, a truly enormous vessel 420 feet long & displacing more than 6,000 tons, which had been authorized in 1842 và, after several false starts, had been on the stocks since 1854. The death of its builder, Robert L. Stevens, in 1856, had brought construction phệ a halt, và the ship had remained in a half-finished condition at Hoboken, New Jersey, ever since .Robert Stevens ’ two surviving brothers, John & Edwin, offered Khủng complete the ship at their own expense if the government would buy it when it was successfully completed. A board of naval officers was then appointed mập survey the ship & decide whether it was worth finishing. The verdict was that it was not, và the offer of the Stevens brothers was declined. Upon the death of Edwin Stevens in 1868, the Stevens Battery was bequeathed béo the state of New Jersey, along with the sum of one million dollars with which phệ complete it. General George B. McClellan was appointed bự head the project, mới nhất plans for converting the battery béo a turret ram were drawn up, và work actually went ahead, including the installation of mới ra engines. Finally, the million dollars was spent, và the ship was still incomplete, although it appears that work was progressing quite favorably, và the Navy was interested again. Congress, however, was not, và neither was the state of New Jersey. The Stevens Battery was finally scrapped in 1874 .There was no lack of interest in ironclad warships in the Navy, however. In a báo cáo lớn a special session of Congress on July bốn, 1861, the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, asked for authority béo build ironclads, providing that competent investigation proved them bự be feasible .
The Stevens Battery
On August tam, 1861, Congress passed a bill entitled An Act phệ Provide for the Construction of One or More Armored Ships & Floating Batteries và for Other Purposes. The Act authorized & directed the Secretary of the Navy Khủng appoint a board of three naval officers Khủng investigate plans & specifications for ironclad warships, & appropriated $ 1,500,000 for their construction .This was the first positive response mập the ominous development already taking place at the Norfolk Navy Yard, captured by the Confederates without a fight on April trăng tròn. The Confederate Navy Department had authorized an ironclad early in June, và work had already begun on the conversion of the USS Merrimack ( rechristened the CSS Virginia ) .
The Navy Department issued a request for proposals on August 7, stating that the proposed vessel must be either of iron or wood or of wood & iron combined, for sea or river service, Khủng be not less than 10 nor kết thúc 16 feet draught,